I don't think the Church teaches that the Saints are omniscient. Therefore my question is how are they made aware of our prayers, which are directed to them?
Our communion with the Saints is accomplished in and through Jesus Christ who is the head of the Body, the Church. All the members of Christ's body, those here on earth (the Church militant), the Saints in heaven (the Church triumphant), and those in purgatory, (the Church suffering), are members of the one Body of Christ, and are united by him, and through him who is the Head.
To use an analogy, my right hand has communion with my left hand, not because my hands have their own capacity to work together. Rather, my right hand and my left hand have communion and can work together only in and through the head of my body, which unites and directs them. And so it is with the members of the Body of Christ. In this regard, St. Paul teaches, when one member suffers all the members suffer, when one member is glorified, all the members are glorified (1 Cor 12:26). And there is thus a communion of all the members in the one Body.
That the Saints are aware of us, and pray for us before the throne of God is attested in Scripture where in the four living creatures present before the throne of God and where the incense, which is the prayers of God’s saints, are brought before the throne (Rev 5:8). There is also the ancient tradition of the church from apostolic times wherein the martyrs and heavenly Saints are invoked for help of every sort.
Let us be clear that such communion of the Saints does not occur apart from Jesus Christ, but rather, it is facilitated by him through whom and in whom all things are and subsist, and who is the head of the Body the Church uniting his members.
A friend wants a grandmother and aunt to be the godparents for her daughter. But the pastor says this is not possible, one must be male, the other female. I know other pastors permit this practice. What is correct?
The first pastor is correct. The code of Canon Law says regarding sponsors for baptism, One sponsor, male or female, is sufficient; but there may be two, one of each sex. (Canon 873).
Catechesis is necessary today regarding the role of sponsors. Too frequently, the role is seen as merely ceremonial, and is often misconstrued as a way of bestowing honors on certain adults.
The role of a sponsor in infant baptism is to ensure the Catholic formation of the child if the parents are unable to do so. In this regard, only one sponsor is needed. However, if two are chosen, they are usually called “godparents,” and ought to be in the model of parents: male and female. Otherwise, one suffices.
I know a good number of people who didn't attend mass regularly or who look at pornography, but are not aware that they commit a sin. Actually, it might be pretty hard for the average person to commit grave sin, for who would purposely turn against God?
For a sin to be mortal, three conditions must together be met: grave matter, full knowledge, and deliberate consent (cf Catechism 1857). However, there are aspects of this question that bespeak troubling trends in modern thinking.
First, there is the notion that people don't seem to know any better. Scripture, Sacred Tradition, and the Catechism all speak of the conscience in every human person. The voice of God echoes in the depths of every human heart. While some suppress this voice, deep down it is still there. There is much pastoral experience that people generally do know what they are doing. When speaking to people who are missing Mass, or perhaps are cohabiting and fornicating, etc., they admit they know, deep down, what they are doing is wrong.
Secondly, the notion that mortal sin is rare also seems rooted in modern anthropology that minimizes human freedom and knowledge. While it is true, certain compulsions may marginalize or limit freedom, yet, we are freer than most like to admit. In summoning us to a moral life, and warning us of sin, the Lord in Scripture is not simply setting up a straw man. He is speaking to us as moral agents, who generally act freely, making decisions for which we are responsible.
One may call all this “needless fear,” but if so, the Lord never got the memo. Jesus often used vivid imagery to stir fear within us of the consequences of sin. As with any pastoral appeal, fear must be balanced with other appeals as well. But the modern attempt to remove all fear from the preaching of the Church, has had poor results. Some degree of fear may be “needful” after all.
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